نوع مطلب :مطالب مفید درسی و مقالات ،
Investigation of Psychoanalytic Criticism: (part two)
Processes of condensation and displacement which may be experimental or linguistic or both, generates this alternative screening term, behind which the mother/object is concealed. Recent psychoanalytic theories indicate this psychic location by the term (m)Other, indicating both the mother (who is the initial desire both of the subject and also of the Father) and the impossibility of that desire- thus the structure of the term 'mother' contains within it the structure of denial and loss. In accepting the Law of the Father there are gains as well as losses, as the infant moves out of the Imaginary state into the symbolic order.
The Real, and the phase of need, last from birth till somewhere between 6 and 18 months, when the baby blob starts to be able to distinguish between its body and everything else in the world. At this point, the baby shifts from having needs to having demands. Demands are not satisfiable with objects; a demand is always a demand for recognition from another, for love from another. The process works like this: the baby starts to become aware that it is separate from the mother, and that there exist things that are not part of it; thus the idea of "other" is created. (Note, however, that as yet the binary opposition of "self/other" doesn't yet exist, because the baby still doesn't have a coherent sense of "self"). That awareness of separation, or the fact of otherness, creates an anxiety, a sense of loss. The baby then demands a reunion, a return to that original sense of fullness and non-separation that it had in the Real. But that is impossible, once the baby knows (and this knowing, remember, is all happening on an unconscious level) that the idea of an "other" exists. The baby demands to be filled by the other, to return to the sense of original unity; the baby wants the idea of "other" to disappear. Demand is thus the demand for the fullness, the completeness, of the other that will stop up the lack the baby is experiencing. But of course this is impossible, because that lack, or absence, the sense of "other"ness, is the condition for the baby becoming a self/subject, a functioning cultural being.
3. The Mirror Stage
At the age-between 6 and 18 months-the baby or child hasn't yet mastered its own body; it doesn't have control over its own movements, and it doesn't have a sense of its body as a whole. Rather, the baby experiences its body as fragmented, or in pieces-whatever part is within its field of vision is there as long as the baby can see it, but gone when the baby can't see it. It may see its own hand, but it doesn't know that that hand belongs to
it-the hand could belong to anyone, or no one. However, the child in this stage can imagine itself as whole-because it has seen other people, and perceived them as whole beings.
Lacan says that at some point in this period, the baby will see itself in a mirror. It will look at its reflection, and then look back at a real person-its mother, or some other person-then look again at the mirror image. The child moves "from insufficiency to anticipation" in this action; the mirror, and the moving back and forth from mirror image to other people, gives it a sense that it, too, is an integrated being, a whole person. The child, still unable to be whole, and hence separate from others (though it has this notion of separation), in the mirror stage begins to anticipate being whole. It moves from a "fragmented body" to an "orthopedic vision of its totality", to a vision of itself as whole and integrated, which is "orthopedic" because it serves as a crutch, a corrective instrument, an aid to help the child achieve the status of wholeness.
What the child anticipates is a sense of self as a unified separate whole; the child sees that it looks like what "others" look like. Eventually, this entity the child sees in the mirror, this whole being, will be a "self," the entity designated by the word "I." What is really happening, however, is an identification that is a misrecognition. The child sees an image in the mirror; it thinks, that image is "me". But it's not the child; it's only an image. But another person (usually the mother) is there to reinforce the misrecognition. The baby looks in the mirror, and looks back at mother, and the mother says, "Yes, it's you!" She guarantees the "reality" of the connection between the child and its image, and the idea of the integrated whole body the child is seeing and identifying with.
Psychoanalysis and Feminism
In the last twenty-odd years Freudian psychoanalysis has been criticized for its anti-feminism. From observing themselves, their mothers, and perhaps their sisters, little boys know they have pennis like their father while their mothers and sister do not. On the other hand, the little girl unconsciously realizes that she is already castrated as is her mother and her father possess what she desires (penis-envy). The Freudian concepts of castration and penis-envy raise problems for feminism since Freud's discussion of the process of emotional maturation is unequivocally gendered. Yet his view depends on perceiving woman as lack (of the phallus).
Psychoanalysis and Structuralism
Psychoanalysis seems to be intrinsically and originally a structuralist interpretation of the nature of texts, language and the subjectivities within these semiotic systems. In its use of terms of irreducible and mutually defining oppositions (subject/object etc.) and its totalizing construction of the orders of the Imaginary, the Symbolic and the Rea, Lacanian theory is fundamentally structuralist.
Psychoanalytic theory is close to Barthes' view of the scriptable where rival discourses discern various meaning within the text, depending on their own agendas. Scriptible text makes the reader the creator of another text. It means that the reader brings his/her own conscious and unconscious mind into interpreting the text and creates various meanings. On the other hand the author has brought his/her unconscious mind into the text-even being unable to conceive it him/herself. Therefore Freudian interpretation of the texts can be considered related to the structuralist point view.
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